S. E. Pavlov (2000, 2010)
1. Adaptation is a continuous process which can
only be stopped because of the death of the organism.
2. Any living organism exists in a
four-dimensional space and consequently, the processes of its adaptation cannot
be described in linear.
the basis of the process of adaptation of a highly organized organism always
there is formation of an absolutely specific functional system (to be precise –
functional system of a concrete behavioral act), adaptive modifications in
which components serve as one of the compulsory «instruments» of its formation.
4. System-constituent factors of any functional
system are final and intermediate results of its «activity» which always
determine the necessity of a multi-parametric evaluation not only of the final
result of the work of the system but also of the characteristics of «duty
cycle» of any functional system and determine its absolute specificity.
5. Systematic responses of the organism upon a
complex of simultaneous and/or consecutive environmental impacts are always
specific and a non-specific unit of adaptation, being an inseparable component
of any functional system, also determines specifics of its reaction.
6. It is possible and necessary to speak about
simultaneously affecting dominating and depending on the situation afferent
influence, but we should understand that the organism always reacts to the
complex of environmental influences by formation of a sole specific to the
particular complex functional system.
7. Functional system is extremely specific and
in the limits of this specificity it is relatively labile only on the stage of
8. Any functional system, independently on its
complicacy, can only be formed on the basis of «preceding» physiological
(structure - functional) mechanisms (subsystems – according to P. K. Anokhin,
1956, 1968, 1975 and others) which, depending on the «requirements» of a
concrete integrated system, can be involved or not involved in it in the form
of its components.
9. Complexity and extension of the «duty cycle»
of functional systems have no limits in time and in space.
compulsory condition of a qualitative formation of any functional system is
permanency or periodicity of action (during the whole of the period of formation
of the system) upon the organism of standard invariable complex of
environmental factors, «providing» for equally standard afferent constituent
part of the system.
11. One more compulsory condition of formation
of any functional systems is participation in the process of the memory
12. Adaptation process, in spite of the fact
that it goes on according to general laws, is always individual, because it
exists in direct dependence on the genotype of this or that individual and is
realized in the limits of this genotype and in accordance with former vital
activity of given phenotype organism.