Суббота, 17-11-2018, 14:47
Медико-биологическое обеспечение подготовки спортсменов
Medical and biological preparation of athletes

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S. E. Pavlov, T. N. Pavlova, K. V. Subbotina, A. S. Pavlov

Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism

Key words: adaptation, functional systems, sport, training and preparing athletes, sports-pedagogical process, functional rehabilitation, therapeutic infra-red laser, specific and non-specific stimulation sport work capacity, rise of the level of athletes’ training.

Abstract: The system of athletes complex preparation proposed by us is based first of all on the existing physiological laws, specially the laws of adaptation of the living organism to functioning in the factors of internal and external environment. The data, received in our researches, has proved the erroneous judgement based exclusively on stressogenic influence of training and competitive loads of high capacity and intensity. We have analyzed the fundamental  regulations of the present-day theory of adaptation and determined their discrepancy in the existing physiological laws and conditions of adaptation to sports loads in particular. Radical changes have been made by us in the theory of adaptation, taking into account fundamental regulations of the theory of functional systems and classical regulations of the theory of unspecified aspect of adaptation. We have proposed a new approach to composing the sports training and tactics of medical measures in principle. We have reported about new method of enhancement of sporting work capacity by laser’s stimulation, adapted specially to real training and competitive condition and used in different periods of athlete’s preparation.

The aim of the present work of sports educational specialists, doctors and psychologists participating in training of sportsmen is to provide for the rise of the level of training and achievement by the athletes of the highest results. At the same time, unified principal orientation of various specialists’ work does not guarantee real unification of their efforts and, accordingly, achievement of the required result. The theses about the unanimity of all the parts of training qualified sportsmen can be realized exceptionally on the basis of knowledge and practical use by all the specialists, working with sportsmen, of really working physiological laws and theory and methods of sport training based on these laws (drawing1).

 Taking into consideration all mentioned above it should be said that till now nobody has managed to describe fully the laws of the development of human organism. Absolute majority of  sport specialists ignore real laws of adaptation as there has not been created general theory of  sport and accordingly there are no efficient theories and methods of sporting  training per different kinds of sports. Disconnection of the basic scientific and practical directions of sportsmen’s training has come to its absolute which has made it already complitely impossible to create the necessary for sports modern service of medical and biological calisthenics of athletes.

Critical analysis of the present day’s predominant concept of mechanisms of adaptation (H. Selye, 1936, 1952; F. Z. Meerson,1981; F. Z. Meerson, M. G. Pshennikova,1988; V. N. Platonov,1988, 1997; and others) made it possible to estimate their absurdity in full measure and resulted in a necessity to describe basic really functioning adaptation laws:

1. Adaptation is a continuous process which can only be stopped because of the death of the organism.

2. Any living organism exists in a four-dimensional space and consequently, the processes of its adaptation cannot be described in linear.

3. In the basis of the process of adaptation of a highly organized organism always there is formation of an absolutely specific functional system (to be precise – functional system of a concrete behavioral act), adaptive modifications in which components serve as one of the compulsory «instruments» of its formation.

4. System-constituent factors of any functional system are final and intermediate results of its «activity» which always determine the necessity of a multi-parametric evaluation not only of the final result of the work of the system but also of the characteristics of «duty cycle» of any functional system and determine its absolute specificity.

5. Systematic responses of the organism upon a complex of simultaneous and/or consecutive environmental impacts are always specific and a non-specific unit of adaptation, being an inseparable component of any functional system, also determines specifics of its reaction.

6. It is possible and necessary to speak about simultaneously affecting dominating and depending on the situation afferent influence, but we should understand that the organism always reacts to the complex of environmental influences by formation of a sole specific to the particular complex functional system.

7. Functional system is extremely specific and in the limits of this specificity it is relatively labile only on the stage of its formation.

8. Any functional system, independently on its complicacy, can only be formed on the basis of «preceding» physiological (structure - functional) mechanisms (subsystems – according to P. K. Anokhin, 1956, 1968, 1975 and others) which, depending on the «requirements» of a concrete integrated system, can be involved or not involved in it in the form of its components.

9. Complexity and extension of the «duty cycle» of functional systems have no limits in time and in space.

10. A compulsory condition of a qualitative formation of any functional system is permanency or periodicity of action (during the whole of the period of formation of the system) upon the organism of standard invariable complex of environmental factors, «providing» for equally standard afferent constituent part of the system.

11. One more compulsory condition of formation of any functional systems is participation in the process of the memory mechanisms.

12. Adaptation process, in spite of the fact that it goes on according to general laws, is always individual, because it exists in direct dependence on the genotype of this or that individual and is realized in the limits of this genotype and in accordance with former vital activity of given phenotype organism (S. E. Pavlov, 2000, 2010 and others).

Absolute functional specificity of complete functional systems, functional systems of concrete behavior acts – is defined by equally absolute structural specificity of these functional systems’ components, which «mutual assistance» provides for the realization of the particular behavior acts. One of the mechanisms, supporting specific mutual relationships between components of a concrete functional system in the process of «execution» by the organism of a concrete behavior act, can be a mechanism of aimed redistribution of peripheral blood circulation with primary guaranty for physiological components, participating in the work of the system (S. E. Pavlov, 2000, 2010; S. Pavlov, Z. Ordzhonikidze, T. Kuznetsova, 2001)

Thus, in accordance with the functioning  adaptation laws (S. E. Pavlov, 2000, 2010 and others): any concrete human activity is absolutely specific according to superficial parameters of this activity and to structural and functional characteristics of the work of the organism, fulfilling this activity. Absolute specificity of each concrete activity of an organism always causes an absolute specificity of structural and functional expenditures and consequently – absolute specificity of rehabilitation processes and adaptation changes which lie in the basis of physiological mechanisms of the rise of athlete’s efficiency. (S. E. Pavlov, 2010). In view of the aforesaid: in training a sportsman, first of all, there must be observed principles of specificity and optimization of sports and pedagogical process construction. Absolute specificity of a concrete activity, specificity of expenditures and rehabilitation processes dictate the necessity of daily estimation of specific characteristics of athlete’s organism concrete behavior – necessity to introduce into the process of qualified sportsmen’s training physiologically approved arrangements concerning current and operative control after the sportsmen’s level of being prepared for training and emulative (competitive) activity (S. E. Pavlov, I. N. Tumilovich, A. S. Pavlov, 2010) – including, for the construction of an efficient specific complex for rehabilitation activity and arrangements to improve sportive efficiency (drawing 2).

Special  attention should be paid to the choice of means and methods of rehabilitation and improvement of the athletes’ efficiency. One ought to understand that simple summation of unlimited numbers of these means and methods not only does not guarantee a positive effect of their use but can be resulted in a considerable decrease of sportsman’s special efficiency and, accordingly, in  deterioration of his sporting results. And it is necessary to remember: effects of the activity of any means and methods of rehabilitation and rise of efficiency are realized in the organism due to physiological mechanisms existing in it, which makes it compulsory to know and take into consideration systematic laws of physiology during the process of construction of  an efficient complex of measures on improvement of the level of athlete’s training (S. E. Pavlov, T. H. Kuznetsova, 1998; S. E. Pavlov, 2000, 2010).

The main aim of the mutual work of a trainer or a coach and a specialist in medico- biological sportsmen’s calisthenics securing is raising of the level of training and athletic effectiveness of each concrete athlete (S. E. Pavlov, T. N. Kuznetsova, 1998). And therefore, an effective complex of actions on the raise of the level of training and athletic effectiveness cannot be constructed in separation from the sports-pedagogical process and not taking into consideration its peculiarities (drawing 3). One of the most important aspects of this complex is satisfaction of a specific functional demand of the sportsman’s organism performing some concrete training and emulative (competitive) work under concrete conditions.


 The choice of means of specific sporting effectiveness stimulation today seems to be extremely difficult because their greatest part is included into the list of means and methods prohibited for application in sports. However knowledge of the laws of physiology makes it possible to use means and methods of non-specific stimulation of the organism’s physiological activity, allowed for application in sports, for stimulation of its specific functions. In this case a compulsory condition to achieve a higher level of training and higher sportive results is application of  extremely specific and optimal training loads. Thus the problem of making training process optimal (one of the corner-stones of sportive pedagogy) can be exclusively solved using methods of current and efficient functional supervision after the level of readiness of each concrete sportsman for concrete training activity (T. N. Kuznetsova, 1989; T. N. Kuznetsova, S. E. Pavlov, 1996; N. G. Gorodensky, S. E. Pavlov, S. L. Sharmina, 1998).

For a non-specific stimulation of sporting effectiveness it is suggested to use a method of transcutan poly-zonal laser effect on neurovascular plexuses (T. N. Kuznetsova, S. E. Pavlov, 1997; S. E. Pavlov, 2008) with the help of therapeutic infra-red laser template devices. In the experiment   (T. N. Kuznetsova, S. E. Pavlov, 1997; S. E. Pavlov, T. N. Kuznetsova, 1998) there was proved high efficiency of using  transcutan poly-zonal laser method on neurovascular plexuses in the training process of swimmers. (drawing 4)


In the experiment with participation of qualified football players (S. E. Pavlov, T. N. Pavlova, S. Rodionov, V. A. Fleckel, 2007) and in practice there was proved high effectiveness of complex, physiologically justified actions on the raise of the level of training athletes, specializing in contact and playing kinds of sports (table 1, drawing 5). We should stress out the necessity of strict individualization of complex training process for each athlete.

Thus, practical use of the laws of physiology, longstanding experiments connected with expert evaluation of practical efficiency of various pedagogic  conceptions of training sportsmen and evaluation of the efficiency of various means and methods of rehabilitation and raise of sporting capacity for work of the athletes, made it possible for us to elaborate technology of complex training of sportsmen, specializing in cyclic and contact and playing kinds of sports.

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